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Image Retrieval From Scientific Publications: Text and Image Content Processing To Separate Multipanel Figures.

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Apostolova E, You D, Xue Z, Antani SK, Demner-Fushman D, Thoma GR
JASIST (Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology), 64(5):893–908, 2013.
Abstract: 

Images contained in scientific publications are widely considered useful for educational and research purposes, and their accurate indexing is critical for efficient and  effective retrieval. Such image retrieval is complicated by the fact that figures in the scientific literature often combine multiple individual subfigures (panels). Multipanel   figures are in fact the predominant pattern in certain types of scientific publications. The goal of this work is to automatically segment multipanel figures—a necessary step or automatic semantic indexing and in the development of image retrieval systems targeting the scientific literature. We have developed amethod that uses the image  content as well as the associated figure caption to: (1) automatically detect panel boundaries; (2) detect panel labels in the images and convert them to text; and (3) detect  the labels and textual descriptions of each panel within the captions. Our approach combines the output of imagecontent and text-based processing steps to split the multipanel figures into individual subfigures and assign to each subfigure its corresponding section of the caption. The developed system achieved precision of 81% and  recall of 73% on the task of automatic segmentation of multipanel figures.

Apostolova E, You D, Xue Z, Antani SK, Demner-Fushman D, Thoma GR. Image Retrieval From Scientific Publications: Text and Image Content Processing To Separate Multipanel Figures. JASIST (Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology), 64(5):893–908, 2013.