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Cost-effective surgical registration using consumer depth cameras .
The high costs associated with technological innovation have been previously identified as both a major contributor to the rise of health care expenses, and as a limitation for widespread adoption of new technologies. In this work we evaluate the use of two consumer grade depth cameras, the Microsoft Kinect v1 and 3DSystems Sense, as a means for acquiring point clouds for registration. These devices have the potential to replace professional grade laser range scanning devices in medical interventions that do not require sub-millimetric registration accuracy, and may do so at a significantly reduced cost. To facilitate the use of these devices we have developed a near real-time (1-4 sec/frame) rigid registration framework combining several alignment heuristics with the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Using nearest neighbor registration error as our evaluation criterion we found the optimal scanning distances for the Sense and Kinect to be 50-60cm and 70-80cm respectively. When imaging a skull phantom at these distances, RMS error values of 1.35mm and 1.14mm were obtained. The registration framework was then evaluated using cranial MR scans of two subjects. For the first subject, the RMS error using the Sense was 1.28 ± 0.01 mm. Using the Kinect this error was 1.24 ± 0.03 mm. For the second subject, whose MR scan was significantly corrupted by metal implants, the errors increased to 1.44 ± 0.03 mm and 1.74 ± 0.06 mm but the system nonetheless performed within acceptable bounds. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.