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Clinical Vocabulary Standards

Multiple projects in this area continue to promote the development, enhancement, and adoption of clinical vocabulary standards. Inter-terminology mapping promotes the use of standard terminologies by creating maps to administrative terminologies, which allows re-use of encoded clinical data.

  • CORE Subset of SNOMED CT: The CORE Problem List Subset is derived from real clinical data from eight large-scale healthcare institutions. It identifies the most frequently used SNOMED CT terms in the problem list.
  • Newborn Screening, Coding, & Terminology Guide: The NLM Newborn Screening Coding and Terminology Guide and HRSA/NLM Guidance for Exchanging Electronic Newborn Screening Orders and Results Web site facilitates the use of electronic health data standards (LOINC, SNOMED CT, UCUM, and HL7) in recording and transmitting newborn screening test results. The Guide includes standard codes and terminology for newborn tests and conditions.
  • RxNav: RxNav is an interface to the RxNorm database, designed for displaying relations among drug entities. In addition to the browser, we created SOAP-based and RESTful application programming interfaces (APIs) enabling users to integrate RxNorm in their applications.
  • RxTerms: RxTerms is a drug interface terminology derived from RxNorm for prescription writing or medication history recording (e.g. in e-prescribing systems, PHRs). The advantages of RxTerms are: Free to use. Directly links to RxNorm, the U.S. drug terminology standard, and facilitates inclusion of RxNorm identifiers in electronic health records. Efficient data entry - RxTerms separates the full names in RxNorm into two parts: drug name + route.
Publications/Tools: 
Fung KW, Bodenreider O. Knowledge representation and ontologies. Richesson RL, Andrews JE (Eds.). Clinical Research Informatics, Health Informatics, DOI 10.1007/978-1-84882-448-5_14, Springer-Verlag London Limited Publishing 2012.
Vreeman D, Chiaravalloti MT, Hook J, McDonald CJ. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation. J Biomed Inform. 2012 Aug;45(4):667-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2012.01.005. Epub 2012 Jan 21.
Lin MC, Vreeman DJ, McDonald CJ, Huff SM. Auditing consistency and usefulness of LOINC use among three large institutions - using version spaces for grouping LOINC codes. J Biomed Inform. 2012 Aug;45(4):658-66. doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2012.01.008. Epub 2012 Jan 28.
McDonald CJ, Vreeman D, Goodwin RM. Dataset: LOINC Top 2000+ Lab Observations and Mapper's Guide
Pan H, Tryka KA, Vreeman DJ, Huggins W, Phillips MJ, Mehta JP, Phillips JH, McDonald C, Junkins HA, Ramos EM, Hamilton CM. Using PhenX measures to identify opportunities for cross-study analysis. Hum Mutat. 2012 May;33(5):849-57. doi: 10.1002/humu.22074. Epub 2012 Apr 3.
Fung KW, Xu J. Synergism between the mapping projects from SNOMED CT to ICD-10 and ICD-10-CM. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2012;2012:218-27. Epub 2012 Nov 3.
Xu J, Fung KW. Handling age specification in the SNOMED CT to ICD-10-CM cross-map. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2012;2012:1014-22. Epub 2012 Nov 3.
McDonald CJ, Abhyankar S, Taft L. Dataset: common units of measure - subset of the Unified Code for Units of Measure.
McDonald C, Vreeman D, Goodwin RM. Dataset: LOINC Top 300+ Lab Orders
Cardenas I, Marcelo AB, Fontelo P. Development of a health informatics community-generated, open-source controlled medical vocabulary. AMIA Annu Symp Proc [Proceedings of the American Medical Informatics Association Annual Symposium]; 2010 Nov 13-17; Washington DC. p. 998.

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